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《英语传记》文字版[PDF]


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更新时间:2012年6月22日

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中文名英语传记
原名A Biography of the English Language
作者C. M. Millward. Mary Hayes
资源格式PDF
版本文字版
出版社Cengage Learning
书号0495906417
发行时间2011年
地区美国
语言英文
简介

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内容介绍:

这是第三版的英语语言的传记,它继续研究英语的结构,它揭示了语言的过去,让读者阅读后可以更好地使用它来沟通。

The third edition of A BIOGRAPHY OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE continues to examine the structure of English, from its Indo-European pre-history, through the invasions that shaped Old and Middle English, through its speakers' conscious efforts to police it in the Early Modern period, through its present-day transformations manifest in urban slang and text-messaging. The textbook explores three important issues: how languages and language change are systematic; how the inner history of a language is profoundly affected by its outer history of political and culural events; and how the English of the past has everywhere left its traces on present-day English. By uncovering the language's past, one can better use it to communicate as well as speculate about its future use in ever-changing globalized media.

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目录

Contents
PREFACE xv
1 Introduction 1
Features Common to All Languages 1
All Languages Are Systematic 1
All Natural Languages Are Conventional and Arbitrary 6
All Natural Languages Are Redundant 7
All Natural Languages Change 7
Changes in Language 8
What Is Language Change? 8
Why Does Language Change? 11
Internal and External Pressures for Change 14
Predicting Change 15
Factors Impeding Change 15
Demarcating the History of English 17
Evaluating Sources of Information 18
Essential Concepts 21
References and Suggested Readings 21
2 Phonology 23
The Production of Speech 24
Phonemes and Allophones 24Lexicon 73
Semantics 74
A Comparison of Germanic Languages 74
Essential Concepts 76
References and Suggested Readings 77
5 Old English 79
Outer History 79
England before the English 79
The Arrival of the English 80
The Christianization of England 82
The Viking Invasions and Their Aftermath 85
Inner History 86
Old English Phonology 87
Consonants 87
Vowels 89
Prosody 92
Old English Graphics 93
The Futhorc 93
The Latin Alphabet 95
Spelling and Punctuation 95
An Illustration of Old English Graphics 96
Old English Morphology 98
Inflections 98
Nouns 101
Adjectives 103
Pronouns 104
Verbs 106
Uninflected Word Classes 110
Old English Syntax 112
Syntax within Phrases 112
Syntax within Clauses 115
Syntax of Sentences 117
Idioms and Latin Influence 119
Old English Lexicon 119
The Extensive Vocabulary 119
Loanwords 120Formation of New Words 123
Lost Vocabulary 126
Old English Semantics 129
Semantic Categories 129
Semantic Change 130
Old English Dialects 133
Old English Literature 135
Prose 136
Verse 137
Essential Concepts 141
References and Suggested Readings 141
6 Middle English 143
Outer History 143
1066–1204: English in Decline 143
1204–1348: English in the Ascendant 146
1348–1509: English Triumphant 147
Inner History 148
Middle English Phonology 148
Consonants 149
Vowels 153
Prosody 159
Middle English Graphics 160
The Middle English Alphabet 160
Spelling and Punctuation 162
Handwriting 164
Middle English Morphology 164
Loss of Inflectional Endings 164
Nouns 166
Adjectives 167
Pronouns 169
Verbs 173
Uninflected Word Classes 178
Middle English Syntax 180
Syntax within Phrases 180
Syntax within Clauses 186
Syntax of Sentences 188
Syntax of Poetry 189
Middle English Lexicon 191
Loanwords 192
Formation of New Words 198
Lost Vocabulary 202
Middle English Semantics 204
Narrowing and Generalization 204
Amelioration and Pejoration 205
Strengthening and Weakening 205
Abstraction and Concretization 206
Shift in Connotation 206
Shift in Denotation 206
Middle English Dialects 208
Middle English Literature 212
Prose 214
Secular Verse 215
Religious and Didactic Verse 216
Drama 216
Essential Concepts 217
References and Suggested Readings 218
7 Early Modern English 219
Outer History 219
Cultural, Political, and Technological Influences 219
The Introduction of Printing (Late 15th Century) 219
The English Renaissance (Late 15th to 16th Centuries) 220
The Protestant Reformation (16th Century) 221
Rising Nationalism (Late 16th Century) 221
Changes in the Economic System (16th to 17th Centuries) 221
Exploration and Colonization (17th to 19th Centuries) 222
The Industrial Revolution (Late 18th Century) 222
The American Revolution (Late 18th Century) 223
English Comes of Age 224
The Debate over Vocabulary 225
The Spelling Reformers 228
The Dictionary Makers 231
The Movement for an English Academy 236The Emergence of Grammar 238
Varieties of English 242
Inner History 244
Early Modern English Phonology 244
Consonants 245
Vowels 248
Prosody 254
Early Modern English Graphics 255
Spelling and Punctuation 257
Early Modern English Morphology 258
Nouns 259
Adjectives 260
Pronouns 261
Verbs 264
Uninflected Word Classes 268
Early Modern English Syntax 270
Syntax within Phrases 271
Syntax within Clauses 274
Syntax of Sentences 275
Early Modern English Lexicon 277
Loanwords 277
Formation of New Words 282
Lost Vocabulary 286
Early Modern English Semantics 287
Generalization and Narrowing 287
Amelioration and Pejoration 288
Strengthening and Weakening 289
Abstraction and Concretization 289
Shift in Denotation 290
Shift in Connotation 290
Early Modern English Dialects 291
Essential Concepts 292
References and Suggested Readings 292
8 Present-Day English 295
Outer History 295
English Comes into Its Own 295The Question of Vocabulary 296
The Question of Spelling Reform 296
Dictionary-Making 300
The Question of a National Academy 302
Approaches to Grammar 304
Future and Imaginary Englishes 306
Inner History 309
Present-Day English Phonology 309
Consonants 310
Vowels 311
Prosody 312
Present-Day English Graphics 312
Present-Day English Morphology 313
Nouns 313
Adjectives 314
Pronouns 314
Verbs 316
Uninflected Word Classes 317
Present-Day English Syntax 319
Syntax within Phrases 319
Syntax within Clauses 321
Syntax of Sentences 321
Present-Day English Lexicon 323
Loanwords 324
Formation of New Words 329
Lost Vocabulary 335
Present-Day English Semantics 336
Essential Concepts 338
References and Suggested Readings 339
9 English Around the World 341
English Is a Native Language 346
Linguistic Variation 345
The United States 347
General American 350
Regional Variation in the United States 352
A. Eastern New England 354B. New York City 354
C. Middle Atlantic 355
D. Western Pennsylvania 355
E. Upper South 356
F. South 356
G. Inland North 357
H. Northwest 357
I. Southwest 358
African American Vernacular English 358
Canada 362
Newfoundland 364
England 367
Standard British English 367
Regional Variation in England 373
Scotland 376
Wales 379
Ireland 381
Northern Ireland 382
Southern Ireland 383
Australia 385
New Zealand 388
South Africa 390
Western Atlantic English 392
English as a Nonnative Language 393
English in Asia 394
India 394
Singapore 397
The Philippines 399
English in Africa 400
West African in General 401
Nigeria 402
Liberia 403
Cameroon 404
English-Based Pidgins and Creoles 405
References and Suggested Readings 406Appendix A Grammar Review: Morphology and Syntax 409
Appendix B Significant Events in the Biography of English 425
Appendix C Parallel Texts of Boethius 429
Glossary 439
Bibliography 455
Index 463

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